HOW TO IMPROVE PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC COOKERY.
It is not sufficient that good and correct food material be provided; it must have such groundwork as will increase and not reduce its alimentary value. The foulness of food is quite as often due to bad cooking as to indecorous selection of physical. Proper cookery reduces good food physical more edible. When methodically done, cooking vicissitudes each of the food rudiments, with the exclusion of fats, in much the same way as do the peptic juices, and at the same time it disruptions up the food by melting the soluble helpings, so that its elements are more willingly acted upon by the peptic fluids. Cookery, however, often fails to reach the wanted end; and the best material is reduced unusable and unpleasant by a improper groundwork.
It is infrequent to find a table, some helping of the food upon which is not reduced unpleasant either by indecorous introductory treatment, or by the adding of some harmful material. This is probably due to the fact that the groundwork of food being such a ordinary matter, its important relatives to health, mind, and body have been ignored, and it has been stared as a unskilled service which might be assumed with little or no groundwork, and without care to substances other than those which relate to the desire of the eye and the palate. With taste only as a standard, it is so easy to mask the results of uncaring and indecorous cookery of food by the use of tastes and condiments, as well as to palm off upon the peptic structures all sorts of middling material, that poor cookery has come to be the rule rather than the exclusion.
Methods of cooking.
Cookery is the art of making food for the table by bandage, or by the request of heat in some manner. A proper source of heat having been tenable, the next step is to smear it to the food in some way. The main methods commonly working are roasting, broiling, baking, simmering, steaming, and frying.
Boiling is cooking food in its own juices before an open fire. Broiling, or questioning, is cooking by healthy heat. This method is only modified to thin pieces of food with a substantial quantity of surface. Larger and more dense foods should be baked or baked. Roasting and broiling are associated in belief. In both, the work is primarily done by the energy of heat directly upon the superficial of the food, though some heat is connected by the hot air nearby the food. The penetrating heat practical to the food soon burns its outside surfaces, and thus stops the seepage of its saps. If care be taken often to go the food so that its whole superficial will be thus replaced upon, the inner of the mass is heated by its own juices.
Baking is the cooking of food by dry heat in a shut oven. Only foods covering a substantial degree of dampness are modified for culinary by this method. The hot, dry air which seals the oven is continuously dehydrated for dampness, and will take from every moist material to which it has admission a amount of water balanced to its grade of heat. Foods covering but a small quantity of dampness, unless endangered in some way from the action of the animated air, or in some way full with dampness during the cooking process, come from the oven dry, hard, and inedible.
Boiling is the cooking of food in a hot liquid. Water is the normal medium working for this drive. When water is animated, as its temperature is augmented, minute foams of air which have been melted by it are given off. As the fever rises, foams of steam will instigate to form at the lowest of the container. At first these will be shortened as they rise into the chiller water above, producing a seething sound; but as the heat increases, the foams will rise advanced and advanced before failing, and in a short time will pass completely through the water, absconding from its superficial, producing more or less anxiety, according to the speed with which they are shaped. Water boils when the foams thus rise to the surface, and vapor is thrown off. The motorized action of the water is augmented by rapid fizzy, but not the heat; and to boil whatever pugnaciously does not accelerate the cooking procedure, save that by the motorized action of the water the food is wrecked into lesser pieces, which are for this reason more willingly unstiffened. But violent boiling times an huge waste of fuel, and by heavy away in the vapor the unstable and salty elements of the food, reduces it much less edible, if not overall cheap. The flush possessions of water are so augmented by heat that it infuses the food, version its hard and tough voters soft and easy of ingestion.
The liquids mostly active in the cooking of foods are water and milk. Water is best right for the cooking of most foods, but for such farinaceous foods as rice, macaroni, and farina, or at least part milk, is better, as it adds to their nutritious value. In using milk for cooking drives, it should be recalled that being denser than water, when heated, less steam seepages, and thus it boils sooner than doe’s water. Then, too, milk being denser, when it is used alone for cooking, a little larger amount of solidified will be obligatory than when water is used.
Hot, as its name suggests, is the cooking of food by the use of vapor. There are several ways of hot, the most common of which is by insertion the food in a punctured dish over a container of boiling water. For foods not demanding the flush powers of water, or which already cover a large amount of dampness, this method is better to boiling. Another form of cooking, which is typically termed hot, is that of placing the food, with water, as needed, in a closed container which is placed confidential another container covering boiling water. Such an device is termed a dual boiler. Food cooked in its own saps in a covered plate in a hot oven, is sometimes spoken of as being steamed or overwhelmed.
Simmering is the lengthy cooking of food in a small amount of liquid, the temperature of which is just below the boiling point. Stewing should not be confused with seething, which is slow, steady boiling. The proper fever for simmering is most easily tenable by the use of the dual boiler. The water in the outer container boils, while that in the internal container does not, being kept a little below the temperature of the water from which its heat is got, by the constant vanishing at a temperature a little under the boiling point.
Frying, which is the cooking of food in burning fat, is a technique not to be recommended Unlike all the other food rudiments, fat is rendered less edible by cooking. Probably it is for this aim that nature has provided those foods which need the lengthiest cooking to fit them for use with only a small amount of fat, and it would seem to designate that any food to be exposed to a high grade of heat should not be varied and compounded mainly of fats.